Novak’s Systematic Review (SR) of paediatric interventions in occupational therapy rates ABA as a green light intervention?? How and why would an OT SR even consider including ABA as a good fit with OT? Why?
We keep being told the article must be relied upon, as it’s a SR and these count more than almost all other research? Why?
While much of OT relies on science based research techniques, if we are truly holistic and believe Occupational Therapy goes beyond the medical model, then so must our research methods go beyond RCT and SR as evidence.
Narrative and lived experience must count. And, if we are to do no harm, then the common sense that so critical to our profession must prevail. This pragmatic common sense is grown in us as students to shape us and enhance our ability to help our clients find creative and very practical ways to live their often very tricky lives. The essence of occupational therapy.
Do we really need an RCT or systematic review of ABA practice before curtailing it?
Anyone fancy writing the ethics or grant application to get time off to write an article to stop something that should never be allowed to happen? Something that ignores the person’s every attempt to communicate, touches without consent and promotes child compliance with anything an adult demands?
I would love to see the ethics board member’s faces on receiving the application.
Based on work done in animal models showing that autism-like symptoms are ameliorated following exposure to an enriched sensorimotor environment, we attempted to develop a comparable therapy for children with autism. In an initial randomized controlled trial, children with autism who received sensorimotor enrichment at home for six months had significant improvements in both their cognitive ability and the severity of their autism symptoms (Woo & Leon, 2013). We now report the outcomes of a similar randomized controlled trial in which children with autism, aged 3-6 years old, were randomly assigned to groups that received either daily sensorimotor enrichment, administered by their parents, along with standard care, or they received standard care alone. After six months, enriched children showed statistically significant gains in their IQ scores, a decline in their atypical sensory responses, and an improvement in their receptive language performance, compared to controls. Furthermore, after six months of enrichment therapy, 21% of the children who initially had been given an autism classification, using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, improved to the point that, although they remained on the autism spectrum, they no longer met the criteria for classic autism. None of the standard care controls reached an equivalent level of improvement. Finally, the outcome measures for children who received only a subset of sensory stimuli were similar to those receiving the full complement of enrichment exercises. Sensorimotor enrichment therapy therefore appears to be a cost-effective means of treating a range of symptoms for children with autism.
After a day of great rugby this is a good reminder about the importance of active participation in meaningful activity – initially maybe in therapy in a clinic setting – but the essence of Ayres’ SI is how sensory integration therapy ultimately supports participation in everyday life including as a team member, sports person, friend or scholar.
TheSIPT Assessmentand it’s precursor the SCSIT (Southern California Test of Sensory Integration) include the test of Post Rotary Nystagmus.
Norms for adults in the research include:
Shuer, J., Clark, F. A., & Azen, S. P. (1980). Vestibular function in mildly mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 34(10), 664-670. ← Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the duration of nystagmus in mildly mentally retarded and normal adults as measured by the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test. The results revealed that the retarded males demonstrated attenuated duration of nystagmus. These findings support the need for further investigation of possible sensory integrative deficits in this population so that proper treatment can be provided.
A comparison of duration of nystagmus as measured by the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and electronystagmography.
The Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test (SCPNT) and electronystagmography are methods used to evaluate one aspect of vestibular function. The SCPNT is based on the examiner’s observation of eye movements and is used in combination with other information as part of a diagnostic battery for children with learning disorders. Electronystagmography is the permanent recording of eye movements through the use of surface electrodes. In this study. The SCPNT and an electronystagmograph were used to record postrotary nystagmus in 20 normal females aged 25 to 30. A significant correlation was found between the two tests for both duration and excursion. In addition, scores of both tests were compared for four normal and for four learning-disabled girls aged 7 to 8. The only significant correlation found was in terms of duration in the normal girls. Results were discussed in terms of factors affecting observation of eye movement, and differences between the nystagmus response of adults and children.
This study assessed the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test (SCPNT)-stimulated nystagmus under three conditions of indoor illumination (bright, dim, and dark), and it studied the concurrent validity of SCPNT and electronystagmographic (ENG) measures of nystagmus duration and excursion. Eighteen adult subjects received three sets of rotations to the left under different lighting conditions in a counterbalanced order. The duration and excursion of the SCPNT were monitored under the bright and dim conditions, and ENG-recorded duration, excursion, frequency, slow-phase velocity, and average intersaccadic interval were measured under all three lighting conditions. No significant differences were found between nystagmus duration or excursion under the bright and dim conditions, but highly significant differences were found between the dark condition and the other two conditions. The correlation between ENG-recorded duration and SCPNT visually monitored duration across bright and dim conditions was .73, and the correlation for excursion was .24. These results suggest that occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need not question the validity of ENG recordings under different indoor lighting conditions, and suggest that the concurrent validity of ENG recordings and SCPNT measures requires more study.
A great paper to see published! Thank you to Heather Kuhaneck, Susan Spitzer and Stefanie Bodison. This systematic review provides a thorough exploration of studies, and most importantly contemporary studies, which support the role of occupational therapy for children with Autism.
“…occupational therapists should feel most confident including imitation of the child and modeling for the child, as they currently have the strongest evidence. Other strategies have emerging support such as the modification of materials, environment, and interaction style.”
The paper includes a review of literature related to play and Autism and the reasons play is essential to developing skills needed for participation in everyday life. The paper highlights the importance of modeling by adults and imitation by children.
“The strongest interventions in this review used imitation of the child and modeling for the child and combined adult-structured and child-directed approaches.”
Abstract: Play in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often atypical, yet consensus regarding effective occupational therapy strategies for improving play is not established. To examine the efficacy of strategies used in occupational therapy to improve play in ASD, authors completed a systematic review of papers from January 1980 through January 2019. Search terms included autism, Asperger’s, ASD, autistic in combination with play, playfulness, pretend, imagination, praxis, creativity, and generativity. Twenty papers met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed interventions included parent education, modified play materials or environments, imitation of the child, and modeling by an adult, a peer, or video. Moderate to strong support exists for the specific strategies of imitation of the child and modeling for the child, with lesser or mixed support for other strategies. Certain strategies commonly used in occupational therapy may be effective in improving the occupation of play in ASD.